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he costs of automobile usage, which may include the cost of: acquiring the vehicle, repairs, maintenance, fuel, depreciation, parking fees, tire replacement, taxes and insurance,[30] are weighed against the cost of the alternatives, and the value of the benefits – perceived and real – of vehicle usage. The benefits may include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence and convenience.[7]

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Main article: Effects of the automobile on societies

Similarly the costs to society of encompassing automobile use, which may include those of: maintaining roads, land use, pollution, public health, health care, and of disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life,

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can be balanced against the value of the benefits to society that automobile use generates. The societal benefits may include: economy benefits, such as job and wealth creation, of automobile production and maintenance, transportation provision, society wellbeing derived from leisure and travel opportunities, and revenue generation from the tax opportunities. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far reaching implications for the nature of societies.[31]

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Environmental impact
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. Further information: Global warming

Transportation is a major contributor to air pollution in most industrialised nations. According to the American Surface Transportation Policy Project nearly half of all Americans are breathing unhealthy air. Their study showed air quality in dozens of metropolitan areas has got worse over the last decade.[32] In the United States the average passenger car emits 11,450 lbs (5 tonnes) of carbon dioxide, along with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen.[33]

Animals and plants are often negatively impacted by automobiles via habitat destruction and pollution. Over the lifetime of the average automobile the “loss of habitat potential” may be over 50,000 square meters (538,195 square feet) based on Primary production correlations.[34]

Fuel taxes may act as an incentive for the production of more efficient, hence less polluting, car designs (e.g. hybrid vehicles) and the development of alternative fuels. High fuel taxes may provide a strong incentive for consumers to purchase lighter, smaller, more fuel-efficient cars, or to not drive. On average, today’s automobiles are about 75 percent recyclable, and using recycled steel helps reduce energy use and pollution.[35] In the United States Congress, federally mandated fuel efficiency standards have been debated regularly, passenger car standards have not risen above the 27.5 miles per US gallon (8.55 L/100 km; 33.0 mpg-imp) standard set in 1985. Light truck standards have changed more frequently, and were set at 22.2 miles per US gallon (10.6 L/100 km; 26.7 mpg-imp) in 2007.[36] Alternative fuel vehicles are another option that is less polluting than conventional petroleum powered vehicles.


Other negative effects

Residents of low-density, residential-only sprawling communities are also more likely to die in car collisions[original research?] which kill 1.2 million people worldwide each year, and injure about forty times this number.[25] Sprawl is more broadly a factor in inactivity and obesity, which in turn can lead to increased risk of a variety of diseases.[37]


Driverless cars
Main article: Driverless car

Fully autonomous vehicles, also known as robotic cars, or driverless cars, already exist in prototype, and are expected to be commercially available around 2020. According to urban designer and futurist Michael E. Arth, driverless electric vehicles—in conjunction with the increased use of virtual reality for work, travel, and pleasure—could reduce the world’s 800,000,000 vehicles to a fraction of that number within a few decades.[38] This would be possible if almost all private cars requiring drivers, which are not in use and parked 90% of the time, would be traded for public self-driving taxis that would be in near constant use. This would also allow for getting the appropriate vehicle for the particular need—a bus could come for a group of people, a limousine could come for a special night out, and a Segway could come for a short trip down the street for one person. Children could be chauffeured in supervised safety, DUIs would no longer exist, and 41,000 lives could be saved each year in the U.S. alone.[39][40]


Future car technologies

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Personalized Modified Car Should Concern Health And Safety – Car Modified, Modified Cars –

car modify
by Nazly

Has a modified car is a very fashionable thing, enough to allow themselves to be friends a hot figure. The popularity of private cars also pull the rise of development Cheyou Hui, make himself a popular figure among the riders, so their car into traffic in the most eye-catching landscape, as many owners of new pursuit. Related reading: Four Mistakes to buy a new car modification “flattered” modified world: close to Modified car You will be “Blind Man” it?

The face of industrial assembly line production of industrial products, publicity personality only modified. When talking about conversion, simple to use “modified” is difficult to generalize on the car owners personalize their requirements. Modified more often are considered more important than the mechanical properties of dumping upgrading, but now more accepted by the majority of owners are “cosmetic.” In order to facilitate description, may wish to sum up the two, called ” Decoration . “

As housing renovation to consider “load-bearing walls can not shift,” to pay attention to issues such as room air quality as Car Decoration is also to consider the mechanical structure and vehicle pollution. Whatever Zhang Xian own personality, to meet the individual needs, safety is the first principle.

Make cars more “wild” Power conversion Likely to result in some danger, so the owners are generally more willing to own your car for beauty. Such as car body stickers, a small car accessories, for leather seats, etc.. Many car owners may not realize that beauty has never been renovated in danger. Security should not be confined to the narrow concept of the traffic.

Who polluted the air inside the car

Lee these days always feel uncomfortable, easily tired, cold, he does not know what illness, to the hospital for a check, the doctor asked him whether the recent house renovation? Li suddenly remembered, he gave just buy new cars were “cosmetic.” Lee invited the officers examined the vehicle’s air quality, was found inside the content of harmful substances greatly exceeded benzene.

Now Auto Beauty Decoration extensive use of leather seats, Plastic , Rubber, adhesive agent material, the VOC content of vehicle greatly exceeded. Extensive use of air conditioning inside the car led to poor ventilation, hazardous materials inside a direct threat to the health.

Present, China’s only indoor air quality testing standards, not yet introduced interior air quality testing of the relevant standards. On the detection of air inside, the current general reference to a class of Type II architecture buildings and indoor air quality national standards. Currently testing for car decoration is more confusing, because there is no specific reference standard, resulting in not standardized, but also to suffer physical and mental health consumers. In addition, consumers car air quality is not very careful, the general thought about the housing decoration decorated, in fact, like cars and houses are also decorated, if not pay attention to material selection will bring harm to the human body.

Discussion for leather seats necessary? Present, in a model series, the leather seats as the more advanced configuration, are generally not in the basic model or the standard appears. Configured to buy a basic model of consumption has various advantages like leather seats, will have the first wife of the fabric surface seats, leather seats replaced with the idea. Leather Will be used in the production process chemicals, be sure to dress up front leather seats have to look at Leather Quality, within a limited budget, select healthier products.

“Runaway-type decoration,” the most important oil line security

For those not satisfied with the appearance of the fever-class owners to beautify the modification, let us dig to call “runaway-type decoration.” Owners of these runaway tendencies, their modification will change the way from the power system to the suspension system, exhaust system.

These modifications to their work, said the objective should be to optimize vehicle performance. Because domestic product converted almost all imported, and most are more mature conversion of foreign parts. On the other hand, in the assembly, these are actually modified parts manufactured based on the original vehicle specifications. Assembly of these parts to some extent modified to describe as the “building blocks spell” as easy.

The face of such a modified car accident easy conclusion, I believe that is actually converted to the parameter tuning of the level of personnel issues. Not able to do the whole car balanced and coordinated, modified vehicles will be a great risk of accident. For example, the most dangerous is not well coordinated oil line, causing spontaneous combustion vehicles. To improve the engine’s power to increase the hydraulic oil into the neglect of the capacity of the pipeline and the aging rate, it is a very dangerous thing.

Once modified, the vehicle speed becomes faster in the end the danger is not dangerous?

I believe that vehicle modification is a performance optimization, it can be said that the driver of the vehicle an enhanced control capabilities.

Modified not crash the “original sin”, which requires drivers to improve their corresponding control levels.

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Modified Cars Modified Cars Should Pay Attention To Three Errors – Car Modification,

Modified cars modified cars should pay attention to three errors
With Modern Society of Automotive supplies types of more and more cars now more and more interested in car modification faithful. Negative effect and Precaution is shown a modified car, regardless of the cart, car, luxury cars, low-end cars have improved much exhilaration. Driving in the street, traffic in the car somehow converted traces do not change the general trend seems to have not keep up with the trend of the. However, the present modified car is not mature environment, although there are quite a lot of vehicles into Madden, but not many really mature modified. Modification is not easily find a shop, a change of the exhaust pipe and mushroom head, suddenly able to achieve the desired result: significant increase in horsepower, speed, soaring. Moreover, if converted properly, but the same as destroying cars, such modification, you change or not change? Related Reading: Let car “with a single step Light” to see how the modified wheel tire How original and non-original brake conversion capacity to upgrade

Question 1: economy cars loaded plus tail, poor grip!
Destroyed truck: Miss Shao opening is a claw QQ, cars may be small, but as a different color, add a sticker, so opening the way is very eye-catching, very pull the wind. And Miss Shao returned to her Car Plus the tail. But just completed conversion soon, Miss Shao Tong in Beijing fast roads, I suddenly felt the car floating, very poor grip. Fortunately, not many vehicles on the road at that time, Miss Shao later described: Stop the car, I almost do not have a small life insurance.

Expert analysis: known as the “rear” more professional, it is called as the spoiler, more common in sports cars and sports cars. Now there are some common vehicles to fit the “tail” spoiler. Car traveling at high speed when the front vehicle will be divided into two parts air, the upper part from the vehicle passed through the lower part from the vehicle. The same time, the Department’s air car is longer than the distance through the lower flow through the air, one can imagine, the vehicle is less than the lower part of the upper air pressure, thus creating a pressure difference from the bottom up. Extreme cases, the vehicle can offset the lift generated by vehicle weight equals a total loss of vehicle suspension up and grip, this is a high-speed vehicle is a very dangerous thing.

Question 2: change vertical exhaust pipe, noisy!
Destroyed truck: Ma easier route into the car straight row, which came out from the exhaust manifold, remove the catalyst section and the tail row, directly to the exhaust into the air, so that the discharge effect is good, but noisy. Mr Ma said: vibration sense when traveling in the car more visible, “Like car-like ride Leap.” In addition, there is no emission of treated waste directly cause serious pollution, this is the error of the exhaust pipe modification.

Expert analysis: an exhaust pipe of excellent design takes a considerable cost to complete. Significant modifications in the engine did not do the premise, only to replace the exhaust pipe, in effect, is less clear. Nowadays, many people also replace the exhaust in the tail section, will be removed catalytic device, this will increase the emissions, the environmental protection of the position we are opposed to this practice. In addition, the choice of exhaust pipe, the muffler tube size is one of the priorities. Typically, the muffler tube is also larger for the ideal noise control, the other hand, the smaller the exhaust noise silencer tube will be larger, but also with the noise suppression exhaust pipe material, pipe barrel and silencer design is closely related to cotton materials .

Also, some owners believe that installing a large diameter exhaust pipe and the amazing noise, the vehicle will run faster, this is a misunderstanding, the replacement of the exhaust pipe can be said to enhance the power is negligible, particularly For some small-displacement naturally aspirated car. On the contrary, large diameter exhaust tail pipes for low-speed torque loss of considerable impact, but more smoothly at high speeds the exhaust of the Power Improvement is helpful.

Question 3: too strong a fire, injury Spark Plug !
Destroyed car events: running the engine ignition system’s role is in any engine speed and engine load different, at the right time can provide enough voltage to spark plugs to produce enough to ignite the mixture inside the cylinder The spark for the best engine combustion efficiency. But Mr. Zhao was driving less than six months because of the spark plug ignition system is too strong to be abandoned.

Expert analysis: There are car owners prefer to replace the strong high-pressure discharge silicon wire and spark plug, which can enhance the ignition has indeed many, but to some extent may vary by car, the key is to know how to match; excessive ignition on spark plug will cause a certain degree of damage. Modern spark advance device has been replaced by computer-controlled engine management computer to collect engine speed, intake manifold pressure or air flow, Throttle Position, battery voltage, temperature, detonation and other signals, calculate the best angle of ignition timing advance, and then issued a fire signal to control ignition timing purposes. Ignition system modification is to make up for lack of the original ignition system, the modified goal is to reduce the magnetization time, increase secondary voltage, lower flash over voltage, an increase of spark time, reduce the transmission loss.

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Best way to modify your car’s sound system

Music can be a great accompaniment to the driving experience, whether you’re just looking for something to ease you into the morning on the trip to work or you’re taking the family out on a road trip and want some appropriate sing-alongs.

The evolution of digital music formats has transformed the music industry over the last decade, but cars have been slower to keep up with the times – meaning that even if your car is only a few years old, its sound system could make it appear much older.

Sound systems are noticeably inferior in cars older than 10 years, and while a hissing radio may have been acceptable in the 1990s, today’s drivers and music lovers demand superior quality from their car stereos. An even more pressing issue is that many cars lack compatibility with iPods and other MP3 players, instead featuring CD players that are less suited to today’s music consumers. And if your car still has a cassette tape deck; that really marks it out as a relic.

Replacing your car stereo with a new one that offers improved sound and compatibility with MP3 player docks will make it easy for you to listen to your favourite music in your car, just like you would on your personal stereo. Unlike other car maintenance that requires professional handling, such as car window repairs, replacing your stereo can be done just as easily at home, and when you buy a new stereo it should come with everything you need.

Safety is paramount when installing your new sound system. Make sure the car’s electricity is switched off before you attempt to remove the old sound system, and remember that your stereo may be connected to burglar alarms to prevent tampering – so you’ll need to enter your security code if prompted. Expect your stereo to be fixed firmly into your car, meaning you might need to take out a few screws and replace them when you slide your new sound system in. You should aim to buy a sound system that’s as close to the size of your original as possible, to avoid unsightly gaps.

The most important component is the wiring harness, the plastic connector for your speaker wires that’s essential for turning your car into a surround sound music machine. When it comes to your speakers, spending a little more can lead to a significant increase in sound quality, especially if you desire the distinctive bass sound that can only be achieved with a subwoofer.

Paul Buchanan writes for a digital marketing agency. This article has been commissioned by a client of said agency. This article is not designed to promote, but should be considered professional content.